Jonah In Prophecy 1–A Messianic Prophecy-760 B.C.

I. Introduction.

A. The historical character of the man Jonah is vouched for by Jesus (Christ Matt 12:39-41) as also that his preservation in the great fish was a “sign” or type of the Lord’s own entombment and resurrection. Both are miraculous and both are equally credible. 2 Kings 14:25 records the fulfilment of a prophecy by Jonah. The man himself was a bigoted Jew, unwilling to testify to a Gentile city, and angry that God had spared it. Typically he foreshadows the nation of Israel out of its own land; a trouble to the Gentiles, yet witnessing to them; cast out by them, but miraculously preserved; in their future deepest distress calling upon God, and finding deliverance, and then becoming missionaries to the Gentiles. Zech 8:7-23.

B. Jonah typifies Christ as the Sent One, raised from the dead, and carrying salvation to the Gentiles. The chapter divisions indicate the analysis of Jonah.

II. Verses. Johah 1:1-17. Jonah’s Disobedience.

A. Jonah Flees From the Lord

The word of the Lord came to Jonah son of Amittai: “Go to the great city of Nineveh and preach against it, because its wickedness has come up before me.”

But Jonah ran away from the Lord and headed for Tarshish. He went down to Joppa, where he found a ship bound for that port. After paying the fare, he went aboard and sailed for Tarshish to flee from the Lord.

Then the Lord sent a great wind on the sea, and such a violent storm arose that the ship threatened to break up. All the sailors were afraid and each cried out to his own god. And they threw the cargo into the sea to lighten the ship.

But Jonah had gone below deck, where he lay down and fell into a deep sleep. The captain went to him and said, “How can you sleep? Get up and call on your god! Maybe he will take notice of us so that we will not perish.”

Then the sailors said to each other, “Come, let us cast lots to find out who is responsible for this calamity.” They cast lots and the lot fell on Jonah. So they asked him, “Tell us, who is responsible for making all this trouble for us? What kind of work do you do? Where do you come from? What is your country? From what people are you?”

He answered, “I am a Hebrew and I worship the Lord, the God of heaven, who made the sea and the dry land.”

10 This terrified them and they asked, “What have you done?” (They knew he was running away from the Lord, because he had already told them so.)

11 The sea was getting rougher and rougher. So they asked him, “What should we do to you to make the sea calm down for us?”

12 “Pick me up and throw me into the sea,” he replied, “and it will become calm. I know that it is my fault that this great storm has come upon you.”

13 Instead, the men did their best to row back to land. But they could not, for the sea grew even wilder than before. 14 Then they cried out to the Lord, “Please, Lord, do not let us die for taking this man’s life. Do not hold us accountable for killing an innocent man, for you, Lord, have done as you pleased.” 15 Then they took Jonah and threw him overboard, and the raging sea grew calm. 16 At this the men greatly feared the Lord, and they offered a sacrifice to the Lord and made vows to him.

B. Jonah’s Prayer

17 Now the Lord provided a huge fish to swallow Jonah, and Jonah was in the belly of the fish three days and three nights.

III. Comments. Verses. Jonah 1:1-17.

A. Jonah Flees From The Lord.

  1. 1:1. The name Jonah means “dove.”
  2. 1:2. Nineveh. Located on the E bank of the Tigris River, more than 500 mi (800 km) from Israel. Sennacherib made it the capital of Assyria about 700 B.C. Calah, however, about 20 mi (32 km) S of Nineveh, and part of a city-state complex that included Nineveh, was the capital in Jonah’s time (See Gen 10:11-12). wickedness. Included idolatrous worship and extreme cruelty to prisoners of war.
  3. 1:3. Tarshish. Located in the S of Spain near Gibraltar, 2,500 mi (4,000 km) W of Israel, and the opposite direction from Nineveh. But, no one can escape from the presence of the Lord (Ps 139:7-12).
  4. 1:6. A pagan had to call God’s prophet to prayer!.
  5. 1:7. Casting lots by mixing small stones in a container, then taking one out, was a popular form of divination used by both pagans and the Hebrews (Lev 16:8; Josh 18:6; 1 Sam 14:42; Neh 10:34; Acts 1:23-26).
  6. 1:10-14. The sailors blamed Jonah for their predicament (v. 10), yet they did not wan to cast him overboard, lest they be considered murderers (vv. 13-14).
  7. 1:16. Apparently, the sailors were convinced that Yahweh (see note on Gen 2:4) was the true God; thus, they offered a sacrifice to Him.

B. Jonah’s Prayer.

1:17. We do not know what kind of great fish that God prepared, though there are whales and sharks capable of swallowing a man. three days and three nights does not require 72 hours, but only one 24-hour day, plus parts of two other days. Our Lord said His burial would be the same length of time. See note on Matt 12:40.

IV. Point Summary. In The Mind Of Jonah.

A. God told Jonah to go to Nineveh and call them to repent. The problem was, Jonah couldn’t stand the Ninevites. The Ninevites were part of the Assyrian Empire, who were a nasty lot. They were known to skin their enemies and hang it on the walls of the city as a warning, or to gouge out the eyes or cut off the ears of defeated soldiers to make their lives miserable. Maybe worst of all, they were known to kill children in the cities they conquered. In other words, Jonah didn’t want to go to Nineveh, and he likely had a pretty good reason for it.

B. And here’s the thing. I’m pretty confident that if I were in Jonah’s shoes, I might feel just like he did. And if you were there, my guess is that you wouldn’t feel much different either. It’s hard to know, though, because Jonah and Nineveh and the Assyrians are historical facts, far removed from us today.

V. References.

  1. Paragraph I. Scofield Study Bible.
  2. Paragraphs II, III. Ryrie Study Bible.
  3. Paragraph IV. Lifeway Voices.
  4. Scriptures come from the New International Version Bible.
  5. Scriptures, for the New International Version Bible in this article, were pasted from

Amos In Prophecy – The future glory of the Davidic Kingdom -(Amos 9:11-15)-787 B.C.

I. Overview. 1

After the recital of the many sins of Israel, and Gods certain judgment on them, the last five verses of Amos described the ultimate restoration of Israel which will follow the times of God’s judgment. The prophecies of Israel’s complete restoration have never been fulfilled.

II. Scripture Text. Amos 9:11-15 (New International Version).

Israel’s Restoration. The Lord’s second advent, and the reestablishment of the Davidic kingdom.

11 “In that day

“I will restore David’s fallen shelter—
    I will repair its broken walls
    and restore its ruins—
    and will rebuild it as it used to be,
12 so that they may possess the remnant of Edom
    and all the nations that bear my name,”
declares the Lord, who will do these things.

13 “The days are coming,” declares the Lord,

“when the reaper will be overtaken by the plowman
    and the planter by the one treading grapes.
New wine will drip from the mountains
    and flow from all the hills,
14     and I will bring my people Israel back from exile.

“They will rebuild the ruined cities and live in them.
    They will plant vineyards and drink their wine;
    they will make gardens and eat their fruit.
15 I will plant Israel in their own land,
    never again to be uprooted
    from the land I have given them,”

says the Lord your God.

III. Comments.

A. Ryrie Study Bible. A vision of future blesing.

1. In That Day. The aspect of the Day of the Lord, known as the Millennium (v 11).

2. Booth of David. The dynasty of David, though humbled for a time, will be reinstated to rule over all the world (v. 12; see Acts 15:15-17.).

3. “The millennial kingdom” will be characterized by fertility (v. 13), prosperity v. 14), and security (v. 15), with Israel permanently possessing the land that was promised in Gen 15:18-21.

B. Scofield Study Bible. Israel’s future blessing.

  1. The restoration of the Davidic dynasty (v. 11).
  2. The conversion of the nations (v. 12).
  3. The fruitfulness of the land (v. 13).
  4. Israel’s return from captivity (v. 14).
  5. The rebuilding of the waste cities (v. 14).
  6. Israel’s permanent settlement in the holy land (v. 15).

IV. Summary. 2

A. Here is a prediction of the restoration of plenty. During the Millennium, the crops will be fruitful and will multiply so rapidly that before they can reap one crop, another crop will be coming in. What does God have for us today? God promises He will meet your needs. He may not make you rich, but the Bible says, “My God shall supply all your need according to His riches in glory by Christ Jesus” (Phil. 4:19).

B. Restoration of dynasty. Restoration of plenty. Restoration of safety (Amos 9:15). God has made a promise for you, too. Jesus said, “And lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the age” (Matt 28:20). Here is a promise of the hope of restoration. You can have hope, too.

C. Hope is found in the Lord Jesus Christ—hope for you.

V. Footnotes.

A. 1. Every Prophecy of the Bible, Chariot Victor Publishing, 1990, John F. Walvoord (Th. D.), pg 295.

B. 2. Vines Expository Notes, Jerry Vines (Th.D.).

Yahweh’s (LORD) controversy with “the whole family”of Jacob (Amos 3:1-9:10)-787 B.C.

I. The Reasons for Israel’s Judgment.

In the next three chapters, Amos focused his attention on Israel’s rejection of God’s Word, and how this led to the corruption of her life. God measured their faithfulness in the treatment of their fellow man, not in glorious homes or in stately liturgy. 1

A. Amos 3:1-15. Scripture Text. Holman Christian Standard Bible.

B. Amos 3:1-15. Comments. 2

The judgments would fall on Israel even though she was a chosen people. Though God had chosen Israel from all families of the earth, He promised to punish her for their sins. The judgments of God were justified because He had revealed His plan through His servants, the prophets. The prophecy was fulfilled in the captivities.

C. Amos 4:1-13. Scripture Text. Holman Christian Standard Bible.

D. Amos 4:1-13. Comments. 3

Illustrating how Israel had not turned to God, He described women referred to as “you cows of Bashan,” and accused them of oppressing the poor, requiring their husbands to keep them, well supplied with drinks. Instead of dominating their husbands, they were promised that they will be led away with hooks as slaves. This prophecy was fulfilled in the captivities.

E. Amos 5:1-17. Scripture Text. Holman Christian Standard Bible.

F. Amos 5:1-17. Comments. 4

God promised judgments on her armies which would decimate their troops. Instead of journeying to Betthel or Gilgal to worship, she should seek the Lord in order to live. This prophecy was fulfilled in the captivities.

G. Amos 5:18-27. Scripture Text. Holman Christian Standard Bible.

H. Amos 5:18-27. Comments. 5

The Day of the Lord would come on her, a day of darkness, and not light. It would overtake her because God despised her religious feasts and her burnt offerings. God said He would not listen to her music, but would let her righteous judgment fall on her. As a result of her sins, God would send her into exile beyond Damascus. This was fulfilled in captivities.

I. Amos 6:1-14. Scripture Text. Holman Christian Standard Bible.

J. Amos 6:1-14. Comments. 6

Her complacent and luxurious living would bring complete judgment on her. God declared that He abhorred the pride of Jacob. God declared that He would smash her great houses into pieces. She had turned justice into poison. Acccordingly, God would stir up a nation against her. This was fulfilled in captivities.

II. The Results Of Israel’s Judgment.

God shows Amos visions depicting what the results of His judgment will look like. These visions also balance God’s retributive justice with His compassion. God’s Holiness requires that justice be satisfied when His law is violated, yet He is compassionate for the sake of mercy toward the repentant. 7

A. Amos 7:1-17. Scripture Text. Holman Christian Standard Bible.

B. Amos 7:1-17. Comments. 8

Her enemies would be like swarming locusts who strip the land clean. Though God had forgiven her some sins, eventually he would spare her no longer. Her high places dedicated to idols “will be destroyed.” Likewise, the sanctuaries of Israel will be ruined. Because Amos’ prophecies were unwelcomed, Amaziah the priest of Bethel, informed Jeroboam that Amos was conspiring against him. In replying, Amos rejected the plea to stop prophesying, and predicted that the wife of Amaziah would be a prostitute, and that “your sons and daughters will fall by the sword.” The people of Israel would die in a pagan country and go ito exile. This was fulfilled in the captivities.

C. Amos 8:1-14. Scripture Text. Holman Christian Standard Bible.

D. Amos 8:1-14. Comments. 9

God promised to send famine through the land, not for food or drink, but for hearing the Words of God. Amos predicted that she wold be searching for the Word of God but would not find it. This was fulfilled in captivities.

E. Amos 9:1-10. Scripture Text. Holman Christian Standard Bible.

F. Amos 9:1-10. Comments. 10

Israel would be judged, and those who were left would be killed with the sword. God would search her out, regardless of where she would hide, and she would be driven into exile by her enemies. God declared that His eyes were on Israel as a sinful nation. Sinners, among the people, would die by the sword with those who claimed that disaster would not overtake her. This was fulfilled in the captivities.

III. Footnotes.

1.The Moody Bible Commentary, Moody Publishers, 2014, pg 1347. John A. Jelinek, (BREd, Th.M., Th.D.)

2. Every Prophecy of the Bible, Chariot Victor Publishing, 1990, pg 292, John F. Walvoord, (B.A., M.A., Th.M., Th.D., D.D., Litt.D.)

3. Every Prophecy of the Bible, Chariot Victor Publishing, 1990, pg 293, John F. Walvoord, (B.A., M.A., Th.M., Th.D., D.D., Litt.D.)

4. Every Prophecy of the Bible, Chariot Victor Publishing, 1990, pg 293, John F. Walvoord, (B.A., M.A., Th.M., Th.D., D.D., Litt.D.)

5. Every Prophecy of the Bible, Chariot Victor Publishing, 1990, pg 294, John F. Walvoord, (B.A., M.A., Th.M., Th.D., D.D., Litt.D.)

6. Every Prophecy of the Bible, Chariot Victor Publishing, 1990, pg 294, John F. Walvoord, (B.A., M.A., Th.M., Th.D., D.D., Litt.D.)

7. The Moody Bible Commentary, Moody Publishers, 2014, pg 1352. John A. Jelinek, (BREd, Th.M., Th.D.)

8. Every Prophecy of the Bible, Chariot Victor Publishing, 1990, pg 294, John F. Walvoord, (B.A., M.A., Th.M., Th.D., D.D., Litt.D.)

9. Every Prophecy of the Bible, Chariot Victor Publishing, 1990, pg 294, John F. Walvoord, (B.A., M.A., Th.M., Th.D., D.D., Litt.D.)

10. Every Prophecy of the Bible, Chariot Victor Publishing, 1990, pg 295, John F. Walvoord, (B.A., M.A., Th.M., Th.D., D.D., Litt.D.)

Amos In Prophecy (2:4-2:16) – 787 B.C.

I. Introduction. Judgments Against Judah And Israel.

The geographical swings of the oracles against the nations have moved full circle around Israel. With the Judah oracle the swing is toward the center, since Judah, a sister kingdom, was in the same geographical area as Israel. The Judah oracle is different from the preceding oracles in the number and kind of items in the indictment. The most significant difference is that whereas previous forms of inhumanity perpetrated on others as the repeated indictment, the wrongs cited in the Judah circle are covenant related. Breach of covenant was Judah’s intolerable rebellion against God. 1.

II. Scripture Context. Amos 2:4-16. English Standard Version.

A. Scripture Text. Amos 2:4-5.

Judgment on Judah

Thus says the Lord:

“For three transgressions of Judah,
    and for four, I will not revoke the punishment,
because they have rejected the law of the Lord,
    and have not kept his statutes,
but their lies have led them astray,
    those after which their fathers walked.
So I will send a fire upon Judah,
    and it shall devour the strongholds of Jerusalem.”

B. Comments. Amos 2:4-5.

God’s condemnation of the nations would be extended to the kingdom of Israel who would be judged, and her fortresses consumed because she rejected the Law of the Lord and served false gods. These prophecies are fulfilled to some extent in history; complete fulfillment is prophesied for the future. 2

C. Scripture Text. Amos 2:6-16

Judgment on Israel

Thus says the Lord:

“For three transgressions of Israel,
    and for four, I will not revoke the punishment,
because they sell the righteous for silver,
    and the needy for a pair of sandals—
those who trample the head of the poor into the dust of the earth
    and turn aside the way of the afflicted;
a man and his father go in to the same girl,
    so that my holy name is profaned;
they lay themselves down beside every altar
    on garments taken in pledge,
and in the house of their God they drink
    the wine of those who have been fined.

“Yet it was I who destroyed the Amorite before them,
    whose height was like the height of the cedars
    and who was as strong as the oaks;
I destroyed his fruit above
    and his roots beneath.
10 Also it was I who brought you up out of the land of Egypt
    and led you forty years in the wilderness,
    to possess the land of the Amorite.
11 And I raised up some of your sons for prophets,
    and some of your young men for Nazirites.
    Is it not indeed so, O people of Israel?”
declares the Lord.

12 “But you made the Nazirites drink wine,
    and commanded the prophets,
    saying, ‘You shall not prophesy.’

13 “Behold, I will press you down in your place,
    as a cart full of sheaves presses down.
14 Flight shall perish from the swift,
    and the strong shall not retain his strength,
    nor shall the mighty save his life;
15 he who handles the bow shall not stand,
    and he who is swift of foot shall not save himself,
    nor shall he who rides the horse save his life;
16 and he who is stout of heart among the mighty
    shall flee away naked in that day,”
declares the Lord.

D. Comments. Amos 2:6-16

  1. Amos 2: 6-12. Because of her sins of injustice and oppression of the poor and desecration of the temple, Israel will be judged (vv. 9-12). Though God had helped Israel in destroying the Amorites and bringing them out of Egypt and caring for them for forty years in the desert (vv. 9-10), Israel did not listen to the prophets that God raised up and she encouraged Nazarites to void their vows by drinking wine. She also attempted to stifle the prophets. This prophecy was fulfilled in the captivities. 2
  2. Amos 2:13-16. The result will be judgment from God and Israel will be crushed, with even her bravest warriors fleeing naked (vv. 13-16). This was fulfilled in the captivities. 2

III. Footnotes.

  1. The New American Commentary, 1995, B&H Publishing Group, Billy K. Smith (Ph.D.), pg 58,
  2. Every Prophecy of the Bible, 1990, Chariot Victor Publishing, John F. Walvoord (Th.D.), pg 292.

IV. References.

  1. Scriptures come from

Amos In Prophecy (1:1-2:3) – 787 B.C.

I. Introduction To The Book Of Amos. 1

A. Amos, a Jew, but prophesying (B.C. 776-763) in the northern kingdom (Amos 1:1. 7:14, 7:15) exercised his ministry during the reign of Jeroboam II, an able but idolatrous king who brought his kingdom to the zenith of its power. Nothing could seem more improbable than the fulfilment of Amos’ warnings; yet within fifty years the kingdom was utterly destroyed. The vision of Amos is, however, wider than the northern kingdom, including the whole “house of Jacob.”

B. Amos is in four parts:

1. Judgments on the cities surrounding the land of Israel, (Amos 1:1-2:3).

2. Judgements on Judah and Israel, (Amos 2:4-16).

3. Yahweh’s (LORD) controversy with “the whole family” of Jacob (Amos 3:1-9:10).

4. The future glory of the Davidic kingdom, (Amos 9:11-15) .

C. We will discuss the Book of Amos in four segments, which will correspond to the following four breakdowns that are shown above.

II. Judgments on the cities surrounding the land of Israel. 2

A. Scripture Text: Amos 1:1-5, New English Translation.

“1 The following is a record of what Amos prophesied. He was one of the herdsmen from Tekoa. These prophecies about Israel were revealed to him during the time of King Uzziah of Judah and King Jeroboam son of Joash of Israel, two years before the earthquake.”


1. After introducing the prophecies, Amos delivered an indictment against the nations who were neighbors of Israel. The first prophecy was against Damascus, which introduced the formula for later prophecies. “This is what the Lord says: ‘For three sins of Damascus, even for four, I will not turn turn back My wrath’ ” (v. 3). The implication was that the many sins of Israel add up until they require judgment. The expression relating to three sins, plus a fourth, is found throughout the book (vv. 6, 9, 11, 13; 2:1, 4, 6). The designation of a certain number of sins, plus one, was characteristic of other biblical prophecies (cf. Prov.6:16, 30:15, 18, 21, 29; Micah 5:5).

2. Damascus had beeen distinguished for its cruel treatment of Israel. The expression, “sledges having iron teeth,” (v. 3) referred to an instrument used in threshing which would cut up the grain, and indicated how Damascus treated Israel. In judgment on Damascus, God will break down the gate of Damascus and destroy “the house of Hazael” (v. 4), town of the king of Damascus with fire.

B. Scripture Text: Amos 1:6-8, New English Translation.

This is what the Lord says:

“Because Gaza has committed three crimes—
make that four!—I will not revoke my decree of judgment.
They deported a whole community and sold them to Edom.
So I will set Gaza’s city wall on fire;
fire will consume her fortresses.
I will remove the ruler from Ashdod,
the one who holds the royal scepter from Ashkelon.
I will strike Ekron with my hand;
the rest of the Philistines will also die.”


The Sovereign Lord has spoken! A similar judgment was pronounced against Gaza, because “she took captive whole communities and sold them to Edom” (v. 6). God would destroy her walls, as well as her king, and would also judge the Philistines, as a whole.

C. Scripture Text: Amos 1:9-10, New English Translation.

This is what the Lord says:

“Because Tyre has committed three crimes—
make that four—I will not revoke my decree of judgment.
They sold a whole community to Edom;
they failed to observe a treaty of brotherhood.
10 So I will set fire to Tyre’s city wall;
fire will consume her fortresses.”


In a smilar way, God would judge Tyre because she, likewise, carried Israel to slavery and disregarded a previous “treaty of brotherhood” (v. 9). Tyre was to experience having her walls and her fortresses destroyed, as well.

D. Scripture Text: Amos 1:11-12, New English Translation.

11 This is what the Lord says:

“Because Edom has committed three crimes—
make that four—I will not revoke my decree of judgment.
He chased his brother with a sword;
he wiped out his allies.
In his anger he tore them apart without stopping to rest;
in his fury he relentlessly attacked them.
12 So I will set Teman on fire;
fire will consume Bozrah’s fortresses.”


A similar judgment was prounced against Edom because she had no compassion on Israel. Fire would also destroy their fortresses.

E. Scripture Text: Amos 1:13-15, New English Translation.

13 This is what the Lord says:

“Because the Ammonites have committed three crimes—
make that four—I will not revoke my decree of judgment.
They ripped open Gilead’s pregnant women
so they could expand their territory.
14 So I will set fire to Rabbah’s city wall;
fire will consume her fortresses.
War cries will be heard on the day of battle;
a strong gale will blow on the day of the windstorm.
15 Ammon’s king will be deported;
he and his officials will be carried off together.”
The Lord has spoken


The people of Amon likewise would be judged because they killed pregnant women and attempted to extend her borders at Israel’s expense. Her walls would also be destroyed by fire and her kings would go into exile (vv. 14-15).

F. Scripture Text: Amos 2:1-3, New English Translation.

1 This is what the Lord says:

“Because Moab has committed three crimes—
make that four—I will not revoke my decree of judgment.
They burned the bones of Edom’s king into lime.
So I will set Moab on fire,
and it will consume Kerioth’s fortresses.
Moab will perish in the heat of battle
amid war cries and the blaring of the ram’s horn.
I will remove Moab’s leader;
I will kill all Moab’s officials with him.”
The Lord has spoken!


Moab was condemned because she deprived the king of Edom a decent burial. She also would be destroyed in war.

III. References”

  1. Scofield Study Bible. Date is from Scofield Study Bible.
  2. Every Prophecy of the Bible, 1990, Chariot Victor Publishing, John F. Walvoord, pg 291-292.
  3. Scriptures come from

Joel In Prophecy – 800 B.C.


Purpose Joel’s prophecy had two purposes. First, Joel wrote to call the nation to repentance (2:12) on the basis of its experience of the recent locust plague. The recent disaster was but a token of a more devastating judgment to come. Yet that judgment could be averted by sincere and humble repentance (2:1314). In this, Joel shares a common message with other prophets. In the light of impending judgment, there is always a message of hope for those who will return in faith to God. Second, the prophecy was intended to comfort the godly with promises of future salvation and blessing (2:28–323:18–21). Should the national disaster occur, Joel offered hope to the true believers that all was not over. God would keep His promise; the Savior would one day reign (NKJV Study Bible). (Scriptures come from the English Standard Version of the Bible, 2001, and are contained on the pages of (Date comes from Scofield Study Bible 1917) (The list of prophecies to be fulfilled, and prophecies fulfilled, comes from the Ryrie Study Bible).

I. Prophecy To Be Fulfilled. Joel 2:1-11

The Prophecy of Future Desolation.

 1 Blow a trumpet in Zion;
    sound an alarm on my holy mountain!
Let all the inhabitants of the land tremble,
    for the day of the Lord is coming; it is near,
a day of darkness and gloom,
    a day of clouds and thick darkness!
Like blackness there is spread upon the mountains
    a great and powerful people;
their like has never been before,
    nor will be again after them
    through the years of all generations.

Fire devours before them,
    and behind them a flame burns.
The land is like the garden of Eden before them,
    but behind them a desolate wilderness,
    and nothing escapes them.

Their appearance is like the appearance of horses,
    and like war horses they run.
As with the rumbling of chariots,
    they leap on the tops of the mountains,
like the crackling of a flame of fire
    devouring the stubble,
like a powerful army
    drawn up for battle.

Before them peoples are in anguish;
    all faces grow pale.
Like warriors they charge;
    like soldiers they scale the wall.
They march each on his way;
    they do not swerve from their paths.
They do not jostle one another;
    each marches in his path;
they burst through the weapons
    and are not halted.
They leap upon the city,
    they run upon the walls,
they climb up into the houses,
    they enter through the windows like a thief.

10 The earth quakes before them;
    the heavens tremble.
The sun and the moon are darkened,
    and the stars withdraw their shining.
11 The Lord utters his voice
    before his army,
for his camp is exceedingly great;
    he who executes his word is powerful.
For the day of the Lord is great and very awesome;
    who can endure it?

II. Prophecy Fulfilled.

The locust army is regarded as a foretaste of an invading army in the “day of the Lord,” (v 1); i.e., in the tribulation period. The future reference may refer to the demon-locusts described in Rev 9:1-12 or to the invasion of the king of the North (Ezek. 38:15; Dan. 11:40). Resembling the Garden of Eden before the invasion, the land of Palestine will be reduced to a wilderness afterward (v. 3). The same (or similar) disturbances described in verse 10 are predicted in Rev. 6:12-13; 8:12).

III. Prophecy To Be Fulfilled. Joel 2:20..

The Promise of Immediate Deliverance.

20 “I will remove the northerner far from you,
    and drive him into a parched and desolate land,
his vanguard into the eastern sea,
    and his rear guard into the western sea;
the stench and foul smell of him will rise,
    for he has done great things.

IV. Prophecy Fulfilled.

The “northern army” will be scattered in the desert, the eastern sea (Dead Sea), and the “western sea” (the Mediterranean). See Ezek. 39:2 for the destruction of the army from the N during the Tribulation.

V. Prophecy To Be Fulfilled. Joel 2:28.

The Lord Will Pour Out His Spirit

28 “And it shall come to pass afterward,
    that I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh;
your sons and your daughters shall prophesy,
    your old men shall dream dreams,
    and your young men shall see visions.

VI. Prophecy Fulilled.

“after this.” I.e., after Israel’s future repentance and restoration (Zech 12:10; 13:1), in conjunction with the second advent of Christ, as witnessed by the portents of verse 30 (See Ryrie note on Acts 2:16-21). The Holy Spirit will be poured out on all classes in Israel who belong to the believing remnant (v. 32). (For Peter’s use of this passage on the Day of Pentecost, see Ryrie note on Acts 2:16-21).

VII. Prophecy To Be Fulfilled. Joel 3:1-3.

The Lord Judges the Nations.

1 “For behold, in those days and at that time, when I restore the fortunes of Judah and Jerusalem, I will gather all the nations and bring them down to the Valley of Jehoshaphat. And I will enter into judgment with them there, on behalf of my people and my heritage Israel, because they have scattered them among the nations and have divided up my land, and have cast lots for my people, and have traded a boy for a prostitute, and have sold a girl for wine and have drunk it.

VIII. Prophecy Fulfilled.

3:1. At the second coming of Christ, Israel will be regathered to Palestine (Matt 24:31).

3:2-3. Also at the Second Coming, the Gentiles will be judged for their treatment of Israel (Matt. 25:40, 45) in the “valley of Jehosphat” (which means “Yahweh judges,” and may refer to the Kidron Valley on the E of Jerusalem).

IX. Prophecy To Be Fulfilled. Joel 3:9-16.

Proclaim this among the nations:
Consecrate for war;
    stir up the mighty men.
Let all the men of war draw near;
    let them come up.
10 Beat your plowshares into swords,
    and your pruning hooks into spears;
    let the weak say, “I am a warrior.”

11 Hasten and come,
    all you surrounding nations,
    and gather yourselves there.
Bring down your warriors, O Lord.
12 Let the nations stir themselves up
    and come up to the Valley of Jehoshaphat;
for there I will sit to judge
    all the surrounding nations.

13 Put in the sickle,
    for the harvest is ripe.
Go in, tread,
    for the winepress is full.
The vats overflow,
    for their evil is great.

14 Multitudes, multitudes,
    in the valley of decision!
For the day of the Lord is near
    in the valley of decision.
15 The sun and the moon are darkened,
    and the stars withdraw their shining.

16 The Lord roars from Zion,
    and utters his voice from Jerusalem,
    and the heavens and the earth quake.
But the Lord is a refuge to his people,
    a stronghold to the people of Israel.

X. Prophecy Fulfilled.

3:9-16. A description of the campaign of Armageddon (Rev. 16:14). Mic 4:3, the reverse of verse 10, can not be fulfilled until after Armageddon. “Your mighty ones” (v. 11). The Lord’s armies (Rev. 19:14). The wicked are a “harvest….”ripe (v. 13) for judgment (cf. Rev. 14:18-19).

3:14. “the valley of decision.” The same as the valley of Jehoshaphat (v. 2), where God will decide about men, not where men decide about God.

XI. Prophecy To Be Fulfilled. Joel 3:17-21.

The Future Glorious Judah.

17 “So you shall know that I am the Lord your God,
    who dwells in Zion, my holy mountain.
And Jerusalem shall be holy,
    and strangers shall never again pass through it.

18 “And in that day
the mountains shall drip sweet wine,
    and the hills shall flow with milk,
and all the streambeds of Judah
    shall flow with water;
and a fountain shall come forth from the house of the Lord
    and water the Valley of Shittim.

19 “Egypt shall become a desolation
    and Edom a desolate wilderness,
for the violence done to the people of Judah,
    because they have shed innocent blood in their land.
20 But Judah shall be inhabited forever,
    and Jerusalem to all generations.
21 I will avenge their blood,
    blood I have not avenged,
    for the Lord dwells in Zion.”

XII. Prophecy Fulfilled.

3:18. “in that day.” The day of Messiah’s reign in His earthly millennial kingdom. “valley of Shittim.” A dry valley near the northern valley near the northern end of the Dead Sea.

3:19. Edom. See Obadiah prophecy.

Obadiah In Prophecy – 862 B.C.


Obadiah, Book of. The shortest OT book, fourth among the Minor Prophets. It is directed against Edom; from time immemorial the Edomites were hostile to Israel. The principal clue to the date of its writing is in Obad. 1114. If “the day you stood aloof” alludes to the events of 2 Ki. 8:20-22 and 2 Chr. 21:16-18, when the Edomites and others rebelled against King Jehoram in the ninth century B.C., the book probably would be dated quite early; but if the reference is to other events (cf. Ps. 137:72 Chr. 36:20Ezek. 25:13-14), the prophecy would be late, subsequent to 586 B.C. Most scholars date the book after the exile, but the more likely view is that 2 Chr. 28:16-18 is the apposite reference and that the time was late in the eighth century, during the reign of Ahaz of Judah. At that time Edom and the Philistines were associated in warfare against Judah, and the names of the two nations are again coupled in Obadiah 19 (Zondervan Illustrated Bible Dictionary). (Scriptures come from the English Standard Version of the Bible, 2001, and are contained on the pages of (Date ocomes from Scofield Study Bible 1917).

Prophecy To Be Fulfilled.

Verse 18:  The house of Jacob shall be a fire,
    and the house of Joseph a flame,
    and the house of Esau stubble;
they shall burn them and consume them,
    and there shall be no survivor for the house of Esau,
for the Lord has spoken (Ryrie Study Bible).

Prophecy Fulfilled.

Fulfillment: Zechariah 12:6.  On that day I will make the clans of Judah like a blazing pot in the midst of wood, like a flaming torch among sheaves. And they shall devour to the right and to the left all the surrounding peoples, while Jerusalem shall again be inhabited in its place, in Jerusalem (Ryrie Study Bible).

Comment: Two similes describe the operation of God’s power: a “firepan” used to carry hot coals to start a wood fire and a “torch” used to light dry grain. Thus will the power of God devour the armies that attack Israel in the latter days (MacArthur Study Bible).

Prophecy To Be Fulfilled.

Verse 21: Saviors shall go up to Mount Zion
    to rule Mount Esau,
    and the kingdom shall be the Lord‘s (Ryrie Study Bible).

Prophecy Fulfilled.

Fulfillment: Verse 21:. survivors/deliverers. Most likely judges who will help rule in the millennial kingdom (Ryrie Study Bible).

Fulfillment: Zechariah 14:9: And the Lord will be king over all the earth. On that day the Lord will be one and his name one (Ryrie Study Bible).

Comment: Statements like “The LORD will be king over the whole earth” stand at the very center of a truly biblical theology. When this comes true in the fullest sense, the prayer of Mt 6:9-10 will be answered. The time is coming when there will be no more idolatry, polytheism, or even henotheism, but only high, ethical monotheism (cf. Dt 6:4).  (Expositor’s Bible Commentary).

Fulfillment: Revelation 11:15:  Then the seventh angel blew his trumpet, and there were loud voices in heaven, saying, “The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of his Christ, and he shall reign forever and ever” (Ryrie Study Bible).

Comment: The seventh trumpet results in the establishment of the millennial kingdom of Christ. The seven vials or bowls (16:1) are probably contained in the judgment of the seventh trumpet. They will occur in a very brief period of time at the end of the Great Tribulation. The second coming of Christ, while a great blessing for believers, will be God’s most severe judgment of the earth. The kingdoms of this world will be completely overthrown by the coming kingdom of Christ (cf. 19:11–21Dan. 2:343544), who will reign for ever and ever (cf. Dan. 7:131427). (King James Study Bible Notes).